Brucellosis is an infectious disease caused by bacteria. These bacteria can spread from animals to humans when humans come into contact with infected animals or contaminated animal products. The most common animals infected are sheep, cattle, goats, pigs, dogs.
Symptoms of Brucella infection may include fever, sweats, loss of appetite, fatigue, headache, muscle/joint pain, and miscarriage in pregnant women. Symptoms can begin anywhere from 5 days to 6 months after exposure, and some may present for prolonged periods of time or never go away.
To minimize exposure risks and prevent infection, ADPH advises only consuming dairy products that have been pasteurized. If you are not sure that the dairy product is pasteurized, do not consume it. If you are at risk for exposure, either occupationally or through leisure activities such as hunting, you should protect yourself by wearing rubber gloves, goggles, gowns, or aprons.
Eating undercooked meat or consuming unpasteurized/raw dairy products:
- The most common way to be infected is by eating or drinking unpasteurized/raw dairy products. When sheep, goats, cows, or camels are infected, their milk becomes contaminated with the bacteria.
- If the milk from infected animals is not pasteurized, the infection will be transmitted to people who consume the milk and/or cheese products.
People who hunt animals may also be at risk. When they are in contact with infected animals, exposure to the bacteria may occur through:
- skin wounds or mucous membranes
- accidentally ingesting undercooked meat
- inhaling the bacteria while dressing their game. Commonly infected animals include: bison, elk, caribou, moose and wild hogs (feral swine).
Breathing in the bacteria that causes brucellosis may also lead to infection. This risk is generally greater for people in laboratories that work with the bacteria.
Occupational exposure is a risk for workers who have close contact with animals or animal excretions (newborn animals, fetuses, and excretions that may result from birth). Such workers may include:
- slaughterhouse workers
- meat-packing plant employees
CDC Feature – Feral swine Hunters: Protect yourself from Brucellosis
Person-to-person spread of brucellosis is extremely rare. Infected mothers who are breast-feeding may transmit the infection to their infants. Sexual transmission has been rarely reported. While uncommon, transmission may also occur via tissue transplantation or blood transfusions.
- Fever Sweating
- Decreased Appetite
- Muscle and joint pain
If the illness is not treated or comes back, you may experience:
- Swelling of the heart, liver, and/or spleen
- Chronic tiredness
- Swelling of the testicle and scrotum area
- Neurologic symptoms (5% of cases)
- Recurrent fevers
Consuming Raw Milk
Page last updated: April 7, 2020