Investigations and Cases

The Immunization Division monitors the incidence and prevalence of vaccine-preventable diseases (VPDs). This table summarizes investigations and cases reported over the last 12 months, and CDC recommended tests and specimens. Underlined diseases link to the Council of State and Territorial Epidemiologists (CSTE) case definitions to determine case classification (i.e., confirmed, probable, suspect, or not a case).

Specimens may be dropped off at your local county health department to be couriered to BCL overnight or can be shipped directly to BCL at 8140 AUM Drive, Montgomery, AL 36117 (at your expense).

To submit a VPD specimen a Requisition Form For BCL Laboratory Testing must be completed, and you may need to complete the Wisconsin State Laboratory of Hygiene Lab Form or CDC Specimen Submission Form (2 MB).

VPD Notifiable Diseases

ADPH Investigations

ADPH Cases

CDC Recommended Test Methods*

CDC Recommended Specimen Type*

Diphtheria

1

0

Culture and identification1

Throat or nasopharynx swab or cutaneous lesion

Haemophilus influenzae

108

105

Culture and identification1

Blood, CSF, or from any sterile site listed below

Meningococcal Disease

12

4

Culture2

Blood, CSF, or from any sterile site listed below

Measles (Rubeola)

177

0

Culture, Serology1, or PCR

Blood or serum

Mumps

68

23

Culture, Serology1, or PCR

Blood, Buccal Swab, Nasopharyngeal, or Throat Swab

Pertussis (Whooping Cough)

262

192

Culture1, or PCR1

Nasopharyngeal aspirate or wash, or throat swab

Polio (Poliomyelitis, paralytic & Poliovirus Infection, non-paralytic)

0

0

Clinical diagnosis (Poliomyelitis), Culture (Poliovirus infection)

Stool, CSF, or oropharyngeal secretions

Rubella (German Measles, Three-Day Measles)

3

0

Culture, Serology1, or PCR

Blood or serum

Smallpox

0

0

CDC Only

Vesicular or pustular fluid

Streptococcus pneumoniae

444

436

Culture2

Blood, CSF,or from any sterile site listed below

Tetanus

1

0

Clinical diagnosis

N/A

Hepatitis A, Acute

135

28

Serology1

Blood

Hepatitis B, Acute

92

40

Serology1

Blood

Hepatitis B, Perinatal 

*Unavailable

*Unavailable

Serology1

Blood

Varicella (Chickenpox)

487

76

Culture, DFA, Serology, or PCR1

Lesion

Total 12/01/2017 - 12/01/2018

1790

904

 

Key 

* To confirm cases based on CDC case definitions

1 Test offered by Bureau of Clinical Laboratories (BCL)

2 Pure culture confirmation only by BCL

3 Normally sterile body site (e.g., Blood, Bone, CSF, internal body site (specimen obtained from surgery or aspirate from one of the following: lymph node, brain, heart, liver, spleen, vitreous fluid, kidney, pancreas, ovary, or, vascular tissue), pericardial fluid, peritoneal fluid, synovial/joint fluid.)

Culture - Isolation

CSF - Cerebrospinal fluid

DFA - Direct florescence assay

PCR - Polymerase chain reaction 

 Outbreak Totals

  • 8 outbreaks have been reported in 2018.
    -- 2 outbreaks still under investigation (Rubella- Tuscaloosa County & Streptococcus pneumoniae- Jefferson County)
        -- Outbreak Settings: Daycare & Correctional Facility/Prison
            -- 1 completed in Correctional Facility/Prison (Streptococcus pneumoniae- Barbour County)
            -- 1 completed in Communities/Church VBS (Pertussis-Jefferson & Shelby Counties)
            -- 2 Completed in Communities (Pertussis- Lawrence, Walker, & Cullman Counties)
            -- 2 Completed in Daycare /Church Nursery (Varicella-Covington & St. Clair Counties)

Pertussis Testing Video: Collecting a Nasopharyngeal Swab Clinical Specimen

Pertussis Testing Video: Collecting a Nasopharyngeal Aspirate Clinical Specimen





Page last updated: December 4, 2018