Investigations and Cases

The Immunization Division monitors the incidence and prevalence of vaccine-preventable diseases (VPDs). This table summarizes investigations and cases reported over the last 12 months, and CDC recommended tests and specimens. Underlined diseases link to the Council of State and Territorial Epidemiologists (CSTE) case definitions to determine case classification (i.e., confirmed, probable, suspect, or not a case).

To submit a VPD specimen a Requisition Form For BCL Laboratory Testing must be completed, and you may need to complete the Wisconsin State Laboratory of Hygiene Lab Form or CDC Specimen Submission Form (2 MB).

VPD Notifiable Diseases

ADPH Investigations

ADPH Cases

CDC Recommended Test Methods*

CDC Recommended Specimen Type*

Diphtheria

0

0

Culture and identification1

Throat or nasopharynx swab or cutaneous lesion

Haemophilus influenzae

115

89

Culture and identification1

Blood, CSF, or from any sterile site listed below

Meningococcal Disease

20

1

Culture2

Blood, CSF, or from any sterile site listed below

Measles (Rubeola)

250

0

Culture, Serology1, or PCR

Blood or serum

Mumps

64

34

Culture, Serology1, or PCR

Blood, Buccal Swab, Nasopharyngeal, or Throat Swab

Pertussis (Whooping Cough)

314

200

Culture1, or PCR1

Nasopharyngeal aspirate or wash, or throat swab

Polio (Poliomyelitis, paralytic & Poliovirus Infection, non-paralytic)

0

0

Clinical diagnosis (Poliomyelitis), Culture (Poliovirus infection)

Stool, CSF, or oropharyngeal secretions

Rubella (German Measles, Three-Day Measles)

23

3

Culture, Serology1, or PCR

Blood or serum

Smallpox

0

0

CDC Only

Vesicular or pustular fluid

Streptococcus pneumoniae

543

411

Culture2

Blood, CSF,or from any sterile site listed below

Tetanus

2

2

Clinical diagnosis

N/A

Varicella (Chickenpox)

634

102

Culture, DFA, Serology, or PCR1

Lesion

Total 07/01/2016 - 07/01/2017

1965

842


Key

* To confirm cases based on CDC case definitions

1 Test offered by Bureau of Clinical Laboratories (BCL)

2 Pure culture confirmation only by BCL

3 Normally sterile body site (e.g., blood, cerebrospinal fluid, joint, pleural, or pericaridal fluid)

CF - complement fixation

Culture - Isolation

CIA - Chemiluminescent immunoassay

CSF - Cerebrospinal fluid

DFA - Direct florescence assay

ELISA/EIA - Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay/enzyme immunoassay

EM - Electron microscopy

GFAS - Graphite furnace absorption

HAI - Hemagglutination inhibition

IFA - Immunofluorescence assay *** Sterile Body Sites***

IHC - Immunohistochemistry Blood, Bone, CSF, internal body site

LA - Latex agglutination (specimen obtained from surgery or

MAT - Microagglutination test aspirate from one of the following:

MIF - Microimmunofluorescence lymph node, brain, heart, liver, spleen,

Microscopy vitreous fluid, kidney, pancreas, ovary,

PCR - Polymerase chain reaction (nucleic acid amplification) or, vascular tissue), pericardial fluid,

RIBA - Recombinant immunoblot assay peritoneal fluid, synovial/joint fluid.

RDT- Rapid diagnostic test, (i.e., antigen test or agglutination test)

Sterile Body Sites - Blood, Bone, CSF, internal body site (specimen obtained from surgery or aspirate from one of the following: lymph node, brain, heart, liver, spleen, vitreous fluid, kidney, pancreas, ovary, or, vascular tissue), pericardial fluid, peritoneal fluid, synovial/joint fluid.

Western blot - Immunoblot

Pertussis Testing Video: Collecting a Nasopharyngeal Swab Clinical Specimen

Pertussis Testing Video: Collecting a Nasopharyngeal Aspirate Clinical Specimen


Page last updated: July 10, 2017