Antimicrobial Resistance/Antibiotic Stewardship
What is Antibiotic Resistance?
Antibiotics are medicines used to prevent and treat bacterial infections. Antibiotic resistance occurs when the medicines used to treat infections caused by bacteria no longer work.
What is Antimicrobial Resistance?
Antimicrobial resistance is resistance to medicine used to treat all types of infections, including bacteria, fungi and parasites. When microorganisms (i.e. bacteria, fungi, viruses, and protozoa) develop antimicrobial resistance they are sometimes referred to as "superbugs".
When the medicines become ineffective, infections will persist in the body which increases the risk of spreading the infection to others.
What is Antimicrobial Stewardship?
Per the Infectious Diseases Society of America: "Antimicrobial stewardship refers to coordinated interventions designed to improve and measure the appropriate use of antimicrobials by promoting the selection of the optimal antimicrobial drug regimen, dose, duration of therapy, and route of administration. Antimicrobial stewards seek to achieve optimal clinical outcomes related to antimicrobial use, minimize toxicity and other adverse events, reduce the costs of health care for infections, and limit the selection for antimicrobial resistant strains."
Core Elements of Antimicrobial Stewardship
- Leadership Commitment
- Drug Expertise
- Key Support
- Take Action through Policy and Practice Change to Improve Antibiotic Use
- Tracking and Reporting Antibiotic Use and Outcomes
- When Antibiotics are Urgent and Necessary
- Antibiotic Resistance Solutions Initiative Fact Sheets
- The ABC's of Antibiotics
- Antibiotics Aren't Always the Answer
- CDC Print Friendly Materials Focusing on Antibiotic Resistance and Emphasizing the Importance of Appropriate Antibiotic Prescribing and Use
- Carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae in Healthcare Settings
- Antibiotic Resistance from the Farm to the Table
- CDC's Safe Healthcare Blog
- For Our Patients and Their Visitors: Help Prevent Infections
- Let's Meat in the Kitchen: Preventing the Spread of Antibiotic Resistance through Safe Handling of Meat and Poultry Products
Antimicrobial Stewardship Training Programs
- The MAD-ID Antimicrobial Stewardship Training Program is designed to help practitioners who are residency trained (or equivalent experience) who are currently or planning to pursue antimicrobial stewardship activities.
- See Nursing Home Training Sessions to implement Antibiotic Stewardship.
- Weighing in on Antibiotic Resistance: Community Pharmacists Can Tip the Scale is a web-based program for community pharmacists.
- View ADPH's on demand program Antimicrobial Stewardship: Its Significance and Impact.
- The Society of Infectious Diseases Pharmacists' (SIDP) Antimicrobial Stewardship Certificate Program is a practice-based certificate program focused on the role pharmacists play in the appropriate use of antibiotics.
- Nursing HomeTrain-the-Trainer Series - training tools and resources to implement antibiotic stewardship and prevent C.difficile in the residents.
- New CDC Training on Antibiotic Stewardship
- Auburn's Harrison School of Pharmacy free Antimicrobial Stewardship online course open to pharmacists, pharmacy technicians, and nurses.
Infection Prevention and Antimicrobial Stewardship Education
- This education is offered by the Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology (APIC)
- CIDRAP's Antimicrobial Stewardship Project provides current, accurate, and comprehensive information on the topic and works to build an online community to address leading issues.
- Nursing Home Infection Preventionist Training
- CDC/STRIVE Infection Control Training
Antimicrobial Stewardship Toolkits
Toolkits were built to facilitate the development of Antimicrobial Stewardship Programs
- The Core Elements of Antibiotic Stewardship for Nursing Homes
- The Core Elements of Hospital Stewardship Programs
- Antibiotic Stewardship Change Package
- Antibiotic Stewardship Driver Diagram
- The Hospital Pharmacist's Guide to Antimicrobial Stewardship Programs
- Strategies for Superbugs: Antibiotic Stewardship for Rural Hospitals
- Implementation of Antibiotic Stewardship Core Elements at Small and Critical Access Hospitals
American Nurses Association's Recommendations to Optimize Antibiotic Use Among Nurses
A white paper released by the American Nurses Association (ANA) outlines how nurses can optimize antibiotic use and provide safer, better patient care.
Leaders Committed to Antibiotic Stewardship
Visit the CDC to see a summary of stewardship commitments and activities that are being implemented by leaders in the U.S.
Antimicrobial Stewardship Workgroup Meeting Minutes
- September 2017
-- Map of Antibiotics Prescribed at Zip Code Level
- March 2018
- October 2018
- April 2019
-- Antibiotic Stewardship Update
Page last updated: July 8, 2019